Objective: Infections during the intensive care treatment present a great continuous challenge to the physicians and to the patients. These infections can significantly increase the morbidity and mortality rates. Methods: One of the major issues to be addressed is the prophylactic use of antibiotics in intensive care units. The importance of infection prevention in critically ill patients is therefore based on its potential to reduce both morbidity and mortality.
Results: The relationship between this reduction and the prevention of the development of resistance remains unclear. The infections can also affect treatment costs, hospital stay, and patients prognosis.
Conclusions: This review tends to summarize all the topics regarding the prophylactic use of antibiotics, prevention of infections in intensive care units, and minimizing the resistance.